7 Tips on How to Take Care of Dry Skin

Looking for ways to take care of dry skin? I’ve got some tried and tested ways that work like a charm. I have dry skin and I know how it’s difficult to take care of it. But by now, I have worked out some ways to treat my problem skin to avoid dryness, redness and discomfort. You need to take care of your skin in order to keep it perfect, right? Follow these tips and don’t forget to share yours in the comments section.

1. Keep the air in your room moist
The first rule of a healthy skin is moist air in your apartment. The great thing that will help you to moisturize air in your room is a vaporizer. It is easy to use, you need just plug it in the room and it will do the entire job. Don’t forget to clean and fill the reservoir when necessary to prevent mold from appearing. Thus you will keep air in the room moist and it will be very good for your skin and for the health of your body in general.

2. Products to care for your skin
If you use soap with the smell of fruits or flowers, beware, you may affect your dry skin without knowing it. It means that chemicals have been added to make these products to smell good. Such chemicals can dry your skin badly. So my advice is to choose natural products to care for your skin. They will moisturize your dry skin since they contain no chemicals to dry it.

3. Use oils
There is the perfect thing that can moisturize your skin very well. I’m speaking about oil. You may know that different natural oils are used in cosmetic products you are using to care for your skin. But do you know that you can use any natural oil as it is? Choose any oil you like, there is wide variety of them. The most common is the olive oil, but you may find that coconut or rose petals oil is more to your liking. Just rub the oil into dry parts of your skin and you will see the results in no time.

4. Use lotion on damp skin
Treating you dry skin with lotion whenever needed is a very good idea. But it will be way much better if you apply your favorite lotion to the damp skin. Put it on after the shower and when your skin is a bit dump and it will absorb the lotion deeper. This will make it easier for your lotion to cope with the dryness of your skin. And you won’t have to worry about discomfort that dryness brings.

5. Drink more
There is nothing that can hydrate your body better than water. “Drink more water” – that is what you hear from everyone. Everybody, from famous dieting experts to your couch in your local gym advise you to drink more water as it is very good for your body. But you need to know that it is equally good to your skin too. Do you want to see your skin shining and hydrated? So, do drink more water!

6. Add fruits and vegetables to your diet
You heard a lot about benefits your body has from fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables full of vitamins and minerals, they contain antioxidants, and they are able to hydrate your skin. So, by adding fruits and vegetables to your eating plan you can keep your skin hydrated. Plus, you will get plenty of essential vitamins.

7. Reduce the temperature in your shower
You may like a hot water, but your dry skin won’t tell you ‘thank you.’ When a hot water runs over your skin, it sucks the moisture out of it, leaving you with dry, bright red skin. A lukewarm water is perfect for dry skin. I don’t also recommend using a cold water since it’s not good for your dry skin as well.

There are plenty of ways to care for your dry skin, but these are the most effective. How do you treat your dry skin?

Why You Should Always Turn on the Air Vent Above You During a Flight

The next time you go to turn off the ventilation above your seat on an airplane — whether because you’re afraid of getting sick or you’re downright chilly — you might want to reconsider.

Using that tiny vent can actually work to your advantage, as it can help you avoid contact with certain microorganisms that can get you sick during a flight.

Travel + Leisure spoke to Dr. Mark Gendreau — the medical director and vice chair of emergency medicine at Lahey Medical Center-Peabody, and an expert on the spread of infectious diseases associated with air travel — to learn how it works and how travelers can best utilize the that little air conditioner.

“Ventilation on airplanes has gotten a bad reputation, but it’s completely unfounded,” Gendreau told T+L.

Part of the reason for this, Gendreau explained, is that there wasn’t really any research on the topic until the last 15 years. But the other reason is a common misconception people often have about the way plane ventilation systems actually work.

“The flow pattern of air on an aircraft doesn’t necessarily work front to back, or back to front. It’s actually compartmentalized into various sections on the aircraft,” Gendreau said.

“As a rule of thumb, the air that you’re typically breathing and exposed to is usually anywhere from two to five rows surrounding your seat,” he added.

Here’s how the ventilation systems work.

Each of these sections (known as temperature control zones), receives air from overhead distribution nozzles that flows through the length of the cabin. The air exits the plane through a grill that’s often located beneath the windows, or where the side walls meet the floor of the plane.

This air then combines with the air outside before going through a HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) to clear away dust and microbes before re-entering the plane.

The number of these ventilation zones varies depending on the aircraft, but each zone typically goes through this filtration process 15 to 30 times within the hour, with 50 percent of the air getting re-circulated and 50 percent of the air coming from outside, according to Gendreau.

The systems were primarily designed during the time when smoking was permitted on flights, Gendreau said, meaning airlines had to come up with an efficient and regular filtration system for their ventilation to clear the smoke from the cabins.

For this reason, HEPA filters can remove more than 99 percent of dust and microbes in the air, Gendreau said, though there are times where you’ll want to turn to your personal vent.

“For airborne viruses, it is incredibly important to ventilate, since ventilation becomes your main means of control besides isolating the affected person,” Gendreau said.

Airborne viruses, like tuberculosis and measles, are transmitted by tiny droplet nuclei that can hang in the air for up to five hours, Gendreau said.

While viruses associated with the common cold and upper respiratory track infections tend to be larger in size and heavier (consequently falling to the floor rather quickly), these particles linger. Which is where your vent comes in.

By using the vent and turning it on medium or low, you can create an invisible air barrier around you that creates turbulence — simultaneously blocking these particles and forcing them to the ground faster.

Planes also have low humidity, which means your mucous membrane can dry out on during a flight. When this happens, you’re more susceptible to contracting a virus, which is why keeping them away becomes all the more important.

And because those heavy common cold particles can still travel up to six feet every time you cough, sneeze, or speak, it’s equally important to wipe down and avoid touching surfaces (like that tray table you were probably resting your head on).

Poorest London children face health risks from toxic air, poverty and obesity

Tens of thousands of the poorest children in London are facing a cocktail of health risks including air pollution, obesity and poverty that will leave them with lifelong health problems, according to a new report.

The study found that schools in the capital worst affected by the UK’s air pollution crisis were also disproportionately poor, with high levels of obesity.

Saul Billingsley, from the FIA Foundation, an international environmental and road safety charity which carried out the study, said: “Children from some of London’s most socially deprived areas are not only affected by unacceptable levels of air pollution around their schools, they also face compounding health risks.”

The report found:

85% of the schools most affected by air pollution have pupils that come from deprived neighbourhoods
Almost nine in 10 of the secondary schools most affected had levels of obesity higher than the London average
86% of worst affected primary schools were in catchment areas with lower than average car ownership
Jonathan Grigg, professor of paediatric respiratory and environmental medicine at Queen Mary University of London, said the health consequences for these children could be “very serious”.

“This is going to have major consequences not just in childhood but over the whole of the life course.”

Professor Grigg, a founding member of the Doctors Against Diesel campaign group, said children from disadvantaged backgrounds often did have access to green spaces but when they did go outside, they were more likely to be breathing dangerously polluted air.

“This is a dangerous combination of factors … childhood is a critical time in terms of health. Children should have the right to breathe air that does not cause them harm.”

7 Things I Wish Every Woman Knew about Healthy Lifestyle

Nowadays healthy lifestyle is one of the most popular topics that are much spoken about on the television, in magazines and we can often hear about it from our friends and colleagues. I should admit it sounds really great, but, unfortunately, most of us don’t actually realize what a healthy lifestyle stands for.

Today my health is my first priority since only when I’m healthy I can be absolutely happy and enjoy all the blessings of this world. Just a few years ago I didn’t focus much on my lifestyle and it seemed that consuming vitamins and doing morning exercise were quite enough for me to be healthy. Everything changed when I made a new friend who was obsessed with the idea of a healthy lifestyle and eagerly followed the instructions and rules that helped her to stay positive, healthy and beautiful. When I saw the impressive results of her healthy way of life I’d made the conscious decision to improve my health and the quality of my life either. I’ve read a lot of literature about healthy living and even visited dietarians who helped me to choose the most suitable diet and advised me on several daily habits that had a big impact on my overall health.

Now I can definitely say that living a healthy lifestyle requires much effort, though, it’s worth it. It is about feeling well physically, mentally and socially. In order to be healthy we need to keep to a balanced diet, hydrate our body, exercise regularly, avoid stress and incorporate some healthy habits into our everyday life. So, if you want to feel better, improve your condition and look more attractive, make sure you include the following crucial things into your daily routine.

1. Balanced diet gives you more energy
Eating a balanced diet is an indispensable part of a healthy lifestyle. That’s why I try to stick to a nutritious eating plan with a variety of food groups like fruits, vegetables, lean meat, dairy products and grains that are high in vitamins and fiber. By adding these foods to my daily menu I get more energy, boost my physical performance and have a better mood.

One of the major rules I’ve learnt about healthy lifestyle is not to skip my breakfast because it is the most substantial meal of the day that provides me with energy for the whole day. I have never eaten in the morning before. Consequently I often felt tired and sleepy at my workplace and consumed more food at lunch that led to my weight gain. Nowadays I try to reduce my sugar and salt intake and avoid various junk foods that can be extremely harmful to my health. Taking into account that women are at higher risk of osteoporosis, doctors stress we should eat more calcium-rich foods on a regular basis.

2. Water is the key to health and beauty
It’s not a secret that our body is made up of 70% water. Due to this fact it plays a vital role in the body’s metabolism. I think you’ve heard enough about the necessity of drinking about 7 glasses of water a day in order to stay healthy and beautiful. If your body lacks water, you’ll be subjected to various diseases and it can be even the reason of your overweight. So, I recommend you to hydrate your body daily and you’ll be amazed with the final results.

I’ve tried different ways to control my weight and keep fit, but not all of them were effective to me. Nevertheless, I was lucky to find out a wonderful solution that helped me to consume less calories. Once I watched a TV program with my favorite actress who shared the secrets of her beauty and one of her healthy tips was drinking a glass of water before every meal. After that I started to practice that habit regularly and it turned out to be really beneficial to me as it makes me feel fuller and I don’t eat as much as I did before. I also like to add a slice of lemon to water and its sour flavor helps me to decrease food cravings.

3. The role of exercise is immense
When it comes to our health the role of exercise can’t be overestimated. The lack of movement is one of those factors that may cause a number of health problems. If your body is not used to physical activity, you can get tired easily even with some simple tasks. Every medical expert will tell you that daily exercise is essential to healthy living. It has been medically proven that people who do regular exercises have more chances to strengthen their heart, muscles and bones.

For me, constant physical activity is a nice opportunity to keep my weight at healthy levels. I’ve been going to the gym for 3 years now and I can say that my regular workouts have contributed greatly to my general well-being and lifestyle. I almost never catch a cold, have a better sleep at night and it’s easy for me to be in a good shape. Furthermore, by exercising I improve my mood since extra physical activity is known to promote the release of endorphins, the so-called “hormones of happiness”. Due to my busy schedule I can’t go to the gym whenever I want. At these days I opt for some other activities that are good for my body and mind as well. For instance, I play with my daughter in the yard, walk around the local park or simply do household chores.

4. Avoiding stress is important
We can hardly imagine our life without stressful situations. It seems they are waiting for us everywhere: at work, at home and even in the street. I’ve read a lot about the negative influence of high stress levels on our health such as the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, poor immunity, high blood pressure and mental disorders. Isn’t all this the reason for us to reduce our everyday stress and not to let it overtake us? You might ask me how I manage to eliminate stress from my life. Surely, it was rather hard to control my thoughts, emotions and keep the balance between my inner world and environment. There is a wide option of activities that I practice daily to reduce my stress. Spending time with my family, physical exercise and gardening are the best things for me to renew my emotional state and feel good.

5. You can’t be healthy without getting enough sleep
Speaking about a healthy lifestyle I can’t omit an adequate sleep that is incredibly important to our physical and mental well-being. Getting enough sleep is one of the basic requirements for our body. When you sleep at least 7 hours a night, your body and brain get a chance to rest, rejuvenate and replenish energy for the next day so that you are able to perform all the necessary tasks.

I’m a busy woman and sometimes getting a healthy sleep can be a great luxury for me. As most women who have to take care of their families and work at the same time, I often suffer from sleep deprivation that leads to negative consequences. I have noticed that lack of sleep makes me irritable, I feel exhausted throughout the day and it also affects my immune system. In contrast to this, when I get a regular and deep sleep, I can stay awake at my workplace, my mood is much better, I manage to control my appetite and my face radiates freshness and beauty. Accordingly, I do my best to get a healthy sleep and my body is grateful for this.

6. Fresh air makes you healthier
How much time do you usually spend outdoors during the day? Do you know that breathing fresh air and getting enough sunlight play an important role in your health, making you stronger and more persistent to various illnesses? Once you’ve made up your mind to lead a healthy lifestyle you should definitely add a few outdoor activities to your daily routine. Personally I have no time to go outside on weekdays and I’m worried about that because I can’t get oxygen necessary for the proper work of my brain and cardiovascular system. In spite of all the amount of work I have to fulfill each day, I’ve recently made some changes in my busy schedule, leaving time for such healthy outdoor activities as walking in the park with my daughter or getting to my work on foot instead of taking a bus. Spending more time outside enables me to reduce tension, anger and feel happier.

7. You should get rid of your addictions
Without a doubt every person has certain addictions like smoking, drinking alcohol, coffee or excessive consumption of sweets. These unhealthy habits may increase your risk of different diseases and stress in the body. Fortunately, I don’t smoke at all and don’t drink alcohol beverages, nonetheless I have one weakness in my life. I can’t live without sweets that can be dangerous to my waistline and influence my blood sugar. That’s why I try to control my daily intake of sweet products, limiting them to an absolute minimum. If you really care about your health, you should stop consuming alcohol, caffeine, nicotine and other toxic substances immediately!

You can see there are plenty of things you should know to lead a healthy lifestyle. Do you have any of these healthy habits in the list of your daily routines? If you want to be healthy and positive, you need to start practicing them right now. By eating well, getting enough sleep and staying active I have changed my mind and body completely and now I can enjoy a healthy and happy life. Are there any other things you wish women knew about healthy lifestyle?

Air Pollution Cuts Three Years Off Lifespans In Northern China

There are currently an estimated 4.5 billion people around the world exposed to levels of particulate air pollution that are at least twice what the World Health Organization considers safe. Yet the impact of sustained exposure to pollution on a person’s life expectancy has largely remained a vexingly unanswered question—until now.

A study published Sept. 11 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences finds that a Chinese policy is unintentionally causing people in northern China to live 3.1 years less than people in the south, due to air pollution concentrations that are 46 percent higher. These findings imply that every additional 10 micrograms per cubic meter of particulate matter pollution reduces life expectancy by 0.6 years. The elevated mortality is entirely due to an increase in cardiorespiratory deaths, indicating that air pollution is the cause of reduced life expectancies to the north.

“These results greatly strengthen the case that long-term exposure to particulates air pollution causes substantial reductions in life expectancy. They indicate that particulates are the greatest current environmental risk to human health, with the impact on life expectancy in many parts of the world similar to the effects of every man, woman and child smoking cigarettes for several decades,” said study co-author Michael Greenstone, director of the Energy Policy Institute at the University of Chicago and the Milton Friedman Professor in Economics, the College and the Harris School. “The histories of the United States, parts of Europe, Japan and a handful of other countries teach us that air pollution can be reduced, but it requires robust policy and enforcement.”

The study exploits China’s Huai River policy, which provided free coal to power boilers for winter heating to people living north of the river and provided almost no resources toward heating south of the river. The policy’s partial provision of heating was implemented because China did not have enough resources to provide free coal nationwide. Additionally, since migration was greatly restricted, people exposed to pollution were generally not able to migrate to less polluted areas. Together, the discrete change in policy at the river’s edge and the migration restrictions provide the basis for a powerful natural experiment that offers an opportunity to isolate the impact of sustained exposure to particulates air pollution from other factors that affect health.

“Unveiling this important information helps build the case for policies that ultimately serve to improve the lives of the Chinese people and the lives of those globally who suffer from high levels of air pollution,” said study co-author Maigeng Zhou, deputy director of the National Center for Chronic and Noncommunicable Disease Control and Prevention in the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention.

Overall, the study provides solutions to several challenges that have plagued previous research. In particular, prior studies rely on research designs that may be unlikely to isolate the causal effects of air pollution; measure the effect of pollution exposure for relatively short periods of time (e.g., weekly or annually), failing to shed light on the effect of sustained exposure; examine settings with much lower pollution concentrations than those currently faced by billions of people in countries, including China and India, leaving questions about their applicability unanswered; measure effects on mortality rates but leave the full loss of life expectancy unanswered.

“The study’s unique design provides solutions to several challenges that have been difficult to solve,” said co-author Maoyong Fan, an associate professor at Ball State University. “The Huai River policy also provides a research design that can be used to explore a variety of other questions about the long-run consequences of exposure to high levels of pollution.”

The study follows on an earlier study, conducted by some of the same researchers, which also utilized the unique Huai River design. Despite using data from two separate time periods, both studies revealed the same basic relationship between pollution and life expectancy. However, the new study’s more recent data covers a population eight times greater than the previous one. It also provides direct evidence on smaller pollution particles that are more often the subject of environmental regulations.

“This new study provides an important opportunity to assess the validity of our previous findings. The striking finding is that both studies produced remarkably similar results, increasing our confidence that we have uncovered the causal relationship between particulates air pollution and life expectancy,” said Avraham Ebenstein, a lecturer in the Department of Environmental Economics and Management at Hebrew University of Jerusalem and an author of both studies.

Since the earlier paper, China has increased its efforts to confront its air pollution challenge. China is switching its primary source of heating from coal-fired boilers to gas-fired or electric units, and it has shut down many polluting plants. The consequence is that particulate air pollution in some of China’s most polluted cities, such as Beijing, has improved significantly.

“Our findings show that these changes will bring about significant health benefits for the Chinese people in the long run,” said co-author Guojun He, an assistant professor at The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. “If all of China were brought into compliance with its Class I standards for PM10 (40), more than 3.7 billion life-years will be saved.”

Introducing the Air Quality-Life Index

Importantly, the results from this paper can be generalized to quantify the number of years that air pollution reduces lifespans around the globe—not just in China. Specifically, Greenstone and his colleagues at EPIC used the finding that an additional 10 micrograms per cubic meter of PM10 reduces life expectancy by 0.6 years to develop a new pollution index, the Air Quality-Life Index. The index allows users to better understand the impact of air pollution on their lives by calculating how much longer they would live if the pollution in the air they breathe were brought into compliance with national or WHO standards. It also serves as an important complement to the frequently used Air Quality Index, which is a complicated function of air pollution concentrations and does not map directly to long-term human health.

“The AQLI uses the critical data and information gathered from our China research and applies it to every country, allowing the billions of people around the world who are exposed to high air pollution levels to estimate how much longer they would live if they breathed cleaner air,” said Greenstone.

8 Little Tricks to Make Your Home Smell Great

Every home can sometimes smell a bit funky no matter the reason. While many people buy air fresheners, there are a few frugal and more natural ways to make your home smell great. Some of these ways are quick and easy and others are more of a surprise, but they really work. Follow these 8 tips and tricks to keep your home smelling good every day.

1. Fabric softener sheets
One of the best tricks you can use to make your home smell good is to opt for fabric softener sheets. Just tuck them into different places in your house to release their fragrance. You can place them under the sheets on the bed, in drawers, and under couch cushions. Everyone who visits you will smell the fabric softener sheets but they won’t know where this lovely smell is coming from.

2. Keep your home clean
Well, when you are trying to make your home smell nice, the main thing to remember is to keep it clean. Although it sounds obvious, many of us miss it. I’m sure everyone wants their home to be a healthy place for their family to live, so it’s vital to clean your house on a regular basis. The major areas that can cause bad smells in your house are the bathroom and the kitchen so make sure you pay close attention to those areas and clean them every other day, or every day if your schedule allows.

3. Open the windows
Perhaps this sounds very simple when it comes to making the house smell good, but we often forget about it and opt for air fresheners. Every house needs to be aired out at least once a day. If you don’t air a house out, it can get a stale, musty smell about it. My house always feels much cleaner after it’s been aired out. It smells fresh and it boosts my mood instantly. Moreover, fresh air can improve your sleep.

4. Tart warmer
There are a few different kinds of tart warmers. There’s a tart warmer that you can plug into the wall and it will act both as a night light and a tart warmer. There’s also a tart warmer that comes with a cord made in a decorative form and that you can place in different places in your house. I personally use a tart warmer every day. This makes my home smell lovely throughout the rooms.

5. Nice smelling laundry detergent
Using a nice smelling laundry detergent is a tip that goes a long way. There are a couple of families that I like to visit since I can always smell their fantastic laundry detergent from outside their house while I’m waiting for them to open the door. Find a laundry detergent that will have the most long lasting scent and that will go throughout your house every time you use it.

6. Bake cookies
This tip is not an easy one for many of us, but if you are a big fan of cooking, you can easily make your home smell great. After all, who doesn’t like the smell of fresh baked cookies? Not only does baking cookies make your home smell nice, it also gives you an opportunity to enjoy delicious homemade treats. There are many other things to bake such as brownies, muffins, and cakes.

7. Secret air freshener
It’s one of my favorite ways to make a home smell good. I hang some car air fresheners in a closet and near a garbage can. They actually do a lot to help cope with odor and I’ve received plenty of compliments on how I always make such small areas of my home smell so great.

8. Flowers
Fresh flowers are one of the best ways to keep your house smelling fresh and clean. You can place a vase with your favorite flowers in your bedroom, living room or kitchen. There’s no need to buy those air fresheners. Buying flowers every day can ruin your budget, though. I suggest that you buy flowers at least once a week, especially if you know that someone is going to visit you.

East or West, home is best. No matter where you go, you will remember the smell of your home. Keeping your home smelling fresh will help you stay healthy and make your visitors remember the smell of your home. What are your tips for making your house smell lovely? Don’t forget to share them with us in the comments section.

7 Undeniable Reasons to Walk Outside Every Day

Most of us overlook great advantages of walking outside daily. We spend a lot of time in the office in front of our computers, forgetting that there are so many beautiful things outside. Even if you run every morning, it’s not enough to be outside in nature. Walking outside is one of the most nurturing, healthy and calming things to do for yourself. Check out seven reasons to walk outside every single day and consider incorporating a little bit more walking into your everyday routine.

1. Reduce stress
We all live in a hectic world full of stress, so it’s important to find some effective ways to reduce it. One of the best ways to lower your stress levels is to walk outside each day. At first, you might be bored, but once you get started you will be astonished at how relaxing and refreshing it is. I recommend you to switch your phone off completely, not on silent, and you will see how wonderful it is. It’s very relaxing and it can actually help you relieve stress.

2. Get some fresh air
Every person needs fresh air every day, but we often forget about it. We are usually stuck inside and it lowers our daily levels of oxygen and can even make us anxious, tense and depressed. Toxins in your work and house are not meant to be breathed the whole day and night. When you get outside every day, you are exposed to fresh air, which helps cleanse your body and mind.

3. Get vitamin D
One of the biggest reasons to walk outside every day is to get your vitamin D. The sun is the best source of this essential vitamin. Your body needs at least 15 minutes in the sun. Even if the sun isn’t shining outside, you can still get your Vitamin D. And it’s much better than taking supplements. It helps prevent everything from depression, colon cancer, osteoporosis, heart disease to seasonal affective disorder.

4. Enjoy the season
Enjoying the seasons changing will help you become more in tune with nature, and will help you find your balance in life. This is also a great way to learn how to appreciate the smallest things in life. I enjoy seeing the birds chirp in the spring, the bright sun beaming on the pavements during summer, the leaves change in the fall and fabulous snowy landscapes in winter.

5. Strengthen your hamstrings and calves
Did you know that walking outside strengthens your hamstrings and calves? While running is a great way to tone up your calves, walking outside can do it much better because you are walking up and down various inclines sporadically. In fact, it’s an easy way to train your whole leg muscles.

6. Be at peace with your body
When I walk outside, I’m more at peace with my body. It may sound weird, but simply doing the easy task of walking, being outside in nature and doing your own things are a great way to be at peace with your body. Walking outside every day is especially good for people who suffer from anxiety and depression.

7. Discover new routes
The last but not least reason to walk outside is because you get a new travel experience every day. There are different routes to take, and different routines to do outside, even if you live in a small town. Chances are that you will find some new stores or cafes. Walking regularly will help you to know your town better.

There are many other reasons to walk outside daily, but these are some of the most common ones. When walking, you can clear your mind, solve your problems or simply enjoy this beautiful life. After all, we all need to take breaks every now and then. How often do you walk outside? What’s your favorite reason to do it?

Turbulence unravelled: Experts model bumpy air flow in hope of giving us all a smoother ride

A bumpy ride during a flight might be pretty much risk-free, but it’s one of the most hated aspects of flying by seasoned and new passengers alike.

We’ve all had that feeling of cold dread when the seatbelt light comes on, the flight attendants sit down and turbulence sends your drink bouncing across the tray table.

Well a new study in the journal Science , has started to unravel the mysteries of turbulent air flow.

A team of Spanish researchers were able to simulate – for the first time – how turbulence spreads. They showed a series of smaller and smaller eddies, that they described as a “turbulence cascade”.

The cascade describes how liquids and gases like air disperse their “kinetic” or movement energy.

“In this model, the transfer of kinetic energy occurs rather like a baton being passed around runners in a relay race,” one of the authors of the paper, José Cardesa, told the journal Nature .

“But one in which the runners get progressively smaller and more numerous.”

Despite the effects of turbulence affecting all sorts of things from cigarette smoke to the flow of blood round your arteries, scientists have previously understood very little about how it works.

But building on this study might provide a full picture of turbulent air, so aeronautical engineers may be able to change the way aeroplanes are built.

In doing so, they could bring us a step closer to more comfortable flights.

It’s not just aeroplanes, this new information might help all sorts of scientists – from astrophysicists watching gas flow in distant galaxy clusters to the effects of climate change on ocean currents.

These studies could be particularly useful if climate change increases the amounts of turbulence we get.

Earlier this year, research carried out by the University of Reading showed that light turbulence is set to increase by 59% in the future. Moderate turbulence will see a 94% increase while severe turbulence will jump by a massive 149%.

The added bumps will come from the fact that increased carbon dioxide levels and higher temperatures due to climate change will alter the airflow at cruising altitude.

How to Filter Indoor Air With Plants

Ive heard it said that a person can go three weeks without food, three days without water (roughly) and three minutes without air (roughly). With those numbers, it seems that air quality should be an important consideration for health, as we proportionately consume more air than any other substance and as chemicals can be easily absorbed through the lungs.

Turns out, outdoor air pollution isn’t the biggest offender either. Indoor air has been shown to be 2-5 times as contaminated as outdoor air in some places, and indoor air is often much more stagnant.

Substances like chemical-based cleaners, air fresheners, scents and detergents can further pollute indoor air and contribute to poor indoor air quality. An easy way to reduce this type of indoor air pollution is to switch to non-toxic options for cleaning. Here are some of my favorite natural cleaner recipes:

Natural Stain Treatment Reference Sheet
Natural Homemade Laundry Detergent
Natural All-Purpose Cleaner Recipe
Natural Oven Cleaning
Natural Homemade Glass Cleaner Recipe
Easy Homemade Scouring Powder Recipe
Home Organizing & Cleaning Checklist

Plants as Air Filters?

I did a lot of research to find the best type of air filters to use in our home. One of our children has allergies, and I wanted to find ways to reduce his allergy reactions in our house. I was ready to spend hundreds of dollars on a top-notch filter and the research I did showed that a much cheaper option might be the best. (We also currently use a basic filter to filter dust and large particles)

According to this article:

“In the late ’80s, NASA and the Associated Landscape Contractors of America studied houseplants as a way to purify the air in space facilities. They found several plants that filter out common volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Lucky for us the plants can also help clean indoor air on Earth, which is typically far more polluted than outdoor air. Other studies have since been published in the Journal of American Society of Horticultural Science, further proving the science.”

Since then, research has narrowed down which plants are the best at filtering indoor air and which plants filter which chemicals the best. Plants naturally absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen, but certain  plants also eliminate significant amounts of benzene, formaldehyde and/or trichloroethylene.

According to this article: “The recommendation of NASA is to use 15 to 18 good-sized houseplants in six- to eight-inch (203 mm) diameter containers in a 1,800-square-foot (170 m2) house.” This page (PDF) has a good list of specifically which plants are best at filtering each chemical and which plants are toxic to indoor pets.

At our house, we don’t have indoor pets, but finding plants that were safe with kids around was a priority. I also needed plants that were relatively easy to take care of and pretty resilient.

The Plants We Use

I found a short list of plants that were good at filtering indoor air, were resilient and were considered non-toxic for children, and these are the house plants we currently have :

Aloe Vera (also great for burns)
Spider plant (Chlorophytum comosum) – Very resilient and it produces runners (smaller plants) that can be transplanted.
Snake plant (Sansevieria trifasciata ‘Laurentii’) Also called “Mother in Law’s Tongue” – “This plant is one of the best for filtering out formaldehyde, which is common in cleaning products, toilet paper, tissues and personal care products. Put one in your bathroom — it’ll thrive with low light and steamy humid conditions while helping filter out air pollutants.” [source]
Dracena (Dracaena deremensis ‘Warneckii’) – Also known as Corn Plant , this plant can reach a potential height of 12 feet. “Best for removing xylene, trichloroethylene and formaldehyde, which can be introduced to indoor air through lacquers, varnishes and gasoline.” [source]
Christmas Cactus- Great at cleaning the air, and colorful too.
Boston Fern- Easy to grow, good at filtering the air, and resilient.
Bromeliads – Tropical looking and colorful – great at filtering the air
Bamboo palm (Chamaedorea sefritzii) “Also known as the reed palm, this small palm thrives in shady indoor spaces and often produces flowers and small berries. It tops the list of plants best for filtering out both benzene and trichloroethylene. They’re also a good choice for placing around furniture that could be off-gassing formaldehyde.” [source]
Yucca- Good at filtering the air but needs a lot of light.
Succulents and Hens & Chickens – Succulents aren’t the best for filtering the air, but they are easy to care for.
Herbs –  Also not necessarily known for their air-filtering ability, but I use these and have them in the kitchen anyway.

To improve the air quality in our home, we try to focus on the following steps:

Reducing harmful chemicals by using natural cleaning and beauty products
Using house-plants to filter air
Using a basic air-filter to filter dust and large particles
Do you have any indoor house plants? Why or why not? Share below…

Coutinho wants clear-the-air talks with Liverpool as he begins to accept Barcelona move may be impossible

Coutinho is ready to smooth over the summer’s events Getty Images
Philippe Coutinho is ready to hold clear-the-air talks with Liverpool as he looks to return to the fold with Jurgen Klopp’s side.

The Brazilian international emailed a transfer request to the clubearlier this month, a request rejected by Liverpool, after interest from Barcelona turned his head.

Barca have had a number of bids rejected for the playmaker and have been surprised by the Anfield club’s resolve, they have ended their interest in order to analyse other options and sounded out Christian Eriksen’s interest in a move as well as talking to the representatives of Nice midfielder Jean-Michel Seri – with whom they have outlined personal terms.

Which all leaves Coutinho in an awkward position on Merseyside, where he has asked to leave the club but looks certain to still be a Liverpool player on 1 September.

The Independent understands that the player and his representatives are ready to admit defeat and will look to talk to key Liverpool figures to smooth over the summer’s events. People within the 25-year-old midfielder’s entourage are pointing the finger at Barcelona for manipulating their client and have suggested the Nou Camp club used family members to provide additional pressure. They insist the ill-conceived email was Barca’s idea.

Jurgen Klopp has been clear throughout this saga that the player was not for sale and that, had it not been for a back injury, he would have been playing. When Coutinho is fit again he is now expected to return to the Liverpool team but not before some uncomfortable conversations with Liverpool. The players are expected to welcome back their teammate with open arms.

The Reds managed to bring in just one of their top targets this summer, succeeding in recruiting Mohamed Salah but finding Southampton and RB Leipzig absolutely unwilling to deal Virgil van Dijk or Naby Keita respectively.