3 non-developed countries you never thought to have stronger military power than developed ones

1. Ethiopia: Ethioipia is currently ranked 41 (of 133 countries) according to the GFP review.

Air Power – Includes both fixed-wing and rotary-wing (helicopter) aircraft from all branches of service (Air Force, Navy, Army). Air power is just one important component of the modern military force. Attack Aircraft represents fixed-wing and dedicated forms as well as light strike types (some basic and advanced trainers fill this role). Some fighters can double as attack types and vice versa – this is how multi-role aircraft can be of considerable value. Transport and Trainer aircraft include both fixed-wing and rotary-wing types. z
Image result for ethiopia military

Army Strength – Tank value includes Main Battle Tanks (MBTs) and light tanks (a few remain in service) as well as those vehicles considered “tank destroyers”. There is no distinction made between all-wheel and track-and-wheel designs. Armored Fighting Vehicle (AFV) value includes Armored Personnel Carriers (APCs) as well as Infantry Fighting Vehicles (IFVs).

Navy Strength – Aircraft Carrier value includes both traditional aircraft carriers as well as “helicopter carrier” warships (the latter growing in popularity worldwide). Cruisers are no longer tracked due to their declining value on the world stage. Submarines value includes both diesel-electric and nuclear-powered types. Total Naval Assets is not simply a sum of the presented navy ship categories – instead it includes all showcased types along with any known / recognized auxiliary vessels (not tracked individually by this site).

The military power of Ethiopia is still stronger than developed countries like Chile, Philippines, Finland.

2. Nigeria: Nigeria is currently ranked 43 (of 133 countries) according to the GFP review.
Image result for nigeria military

Air Power – Includes both fixed-wing and rotary-wing (helicopter) aircraft from all branches of service (Air Force, Navy, Army). Air power is just one important component of the modern military force. Attack Aircraft represents fixed-wing and dedicated forms as well as light strike types (some basic and advanced trainers fill this role). Some fighters can double as attack types and vice versa – this is how multi-role aircraft can be of considerable value. Transport and Trainer aircraft include both fixed-wing and rotary-wing types.

Army Strength – Tank value includes Main Battle Tanks (MBTs) and light tanks (a few remain in service) as well as those vehicles considered “tank destroyers”. There is no distinction made between all-wheel and track-and-wheel designs. Armored Fighting Vehicle (AFV) value includes Armored Personnel Carriers (APCs) as well as Infantry Fighting Vehicles (IFVs).

Navy Strength – Aircraft Carrier value includes both traditional aircraft carriers as well as “helicopter carrier” warships (the latter growing in popularity worldwide). Cruisers are no longer tracked due to their declining value on the world stage. Submarines value includes both diesel-electric and nuclear-powered types. Total Naval Assets is not simply a sum of the presented navy ship categories – instead it includes all showcased types along with any known / recognized auxiliary vessels (not tracked individually by this site).
The military power of Nigeria is still stronger than developed countries like South Africa, UAE, Finland, Austria.

3. Bangladesh: Bangladesh is currentyly ranked 57 (of 133 countries) according to the GFP review.
Image result for bangladesh military

Air Power – Includes both fixed-wing and rotary-wing (helicopter) aircraft from all branches of service (Air Force, Navy, Army). Air power is just one important component of the modern military force. Attack Aircraft represents fixed-wing and dedicated forms as well as light strike types (some basic and advanced trainers fill this role). Some fighters can double as attack types and vice versa – this is how multi-role aircraft can be of considerable value. Transport and Trainer aircraft include both fixed-wing and rotary-wing types. EXTERNAL LINK: Aircraft throughout the military history of Bangladesh.

Army Strength – Tank value includes Main Battle Tanks (MBTs) and light tanks (a few remain in service) as well as those vehicles considered “tank destroyers”. There is no distinction made between all-wheel and track-and-wheel designs. Armored Fighting Vehicle (AFV) value includes Armored Personnel Carriers (APCs) as well as Infantry Fighting Vehicles (IFVs).

Navy Strength – Aircraft Carrier value includes both traditional aircraft carriers as well as “helicopter carrier” warships (the latter growing in popularity worldwide). Cruisers are no longer tracked due to their declining value on the world stage. Submarines value includes both diesel-electric and nuclear-powered types. Total Naval Assets is not simply a sum of the presented navy ship categories – instead it includes all showcased types along with any known / recognized auxiliary vessels (not tracked individually by this site).

The military power of Bangladesh is still stronger than developed countries like Portugal, Belgium, New Zealand.

Everything You Thought You Knew About Face Mapping, Debunked

If you’ve ever tried to self-diagnose your recurring breakouts through a quick internet search, you’re probably familiar with the concept of face mapping. The popular technique tracks breakouts on different areas of the face to determine potential causes and help guide treatment. Ever since discovering this practice on one of my many rabbit hole internet sessions, I figured I knew enough to pinpoint what was causing my flare-ups. Breaking out around my mouth? I probably needed to eat more vegetables. A slew of pimples dotting my forehead? Stress was likely the culprit. But after speaking to a dermatologist, everything I thought I knew was quickly debunked.

While most of the online conversations around face mapping connect different facial zones to internal health, Dr. Rachel Nazarian of Schweiger Dermatology Group revealed that it’s more complicated than that. A better indicator of determining the cause of your breakouts is first tracking the type of acne it is, then looking at where its appearing on the face as a secondary factor. According to her, certain behavior patterns and perhaps some types of acne can be triggered by specific sources, in addition to appearing in certain facial zones. Keep reading for the dermatologist-approved way to map and treat your breakouts, and learn how Differin® Gel is a treatment for mild to moderate acne or even occasional flare-ups.

Blackheads and whiteheads on the forehead and nose

When it comes to your forehead and nose, anything that creates more oil production, whether behavioral or dietary, can lead to breakouts.

“There’s a very high density of oil glands in this area, so people in humid weather, people who are exercising, or people who wear a lot of hats and headbands will usually experience a lot of little breakouts in the forehead.” Dr. Nazarian said. “In addition, fatty, fried foods have been shown to change the viscosity of the sebum in your oil glands, which can clog pores and trigger acne.”

Inflammatory acne on the cheeks

Experiencing acne on the cheeks? You may want to watch the sugar intake.

“While the evidence is still growing, high glycemic index foods and foods that contain natural hormones, like milk and yogurt, can cause basic, inflammatory acne on the cheeks.” she noted.

Tender red bumps on the lateral face and neck

If you’re experiencing deep, red lesions in a U shape around your face, hormones, potentially correlated to your menstrual cycle, could be likely to blame.

“Hormonal fluctuations is thought to affect the outside parts of the cheek closer to the ear, the chin, the jawline, and the neck,” Dr. Nazarian explained.

Treatment

Now that you’ve determined how to map your flare-ups properly, how do you treat it? Dr. Nazarian recommends starting with a gentle cleanser and following up with an oil-free moisturizer before applying a retinoid acne treatment, like Differin® Gel. For sensitive skin, we recommend using every other day or even every third day for the first couple of weeks or so, until your skin gets acclimated with the retinoid. “Retinoids work really well for blackheads, whiteheads, and inflammatory lesions, and can be used generally on facial skin,” Dr. Nazarian advised. “They help regulate the skin cell cycle by dissolving blackheads.” By integrating it into your skincare routine, you can help prevent breakouts before they occur to help restore texture and tone over time.

Computer tech: ‘Organismic learning’ mimics some aspects of human thought

Purdue postdoctoral research associate Fan Zuo, at left, and materials engineering professor Shriram Ramanathan, used a ceramic “quantum material” to create the technology.
Credit: Purdue University image/ Rebecca Wilcox

A new computing technology called “organismoids” mimics some aspects of human thought by learning how to forget unimportant memories while retaining more vital ones.

“The human brain is capable of continuous lifelong learning,” said Kaushik Roy, Purdue University’s Edward G. Tiedemann Jr. Distinguished Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering. “And it does this partially by forgetting some information that is not critical. I learn slowly, but I keep forgetting other things along the way, so there is a graceful degradation in my accuracy of detecting things that are old. What we are trying to do is mimic that behavior of the brain to a certain extent, to create computers that not only learn new information but that also learn what to forget.”

The work was performed by researchers at Purdue, Rutgers University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Brookhaven National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory.

Central to the research is a ceramic “quantum material” called samarium nickelate, which was used to create devices called organismoids, said Shriram Ramanathan, a Purdue professor of materials engineering.

“These devices possess certain characteristics of living beings and enable us to advance new learning algorithms that mimic some aspects of the human brain,” Roy said. “The results have far reaching implications for the fields of quantum materials as well as brain-inspired computing.”

Findings are detailed in a paper appearing on Aug. 14 in the journal Nature Communications.

When exposed to hydrogen gas the material undergoes a massive resistance change, as its crystal lattice is “doped” by hydrogen atoms. The material is said to breathe, expanding when hydrogen is added and contracting when the hydrogen is removed.

“The main thing about the material is that when this breathes in hydrogen there is a spectacular quantum mechanical effect that allows the resistance to change by orders of magnitude,” Ramanathan said. “This is very unusual, and the effect is reversible because this dopant can be weakly attached to the lattice, so if you remove the hydrogen from the environment you can change the electrical resistance.”

The research paper’s co-authors include Purdue postdoctoral research associate Fan Zuo and graduate student Priyadarshini Panda. A complete list of co-authors is available in the abstract. A YouTube video is available at https://youtu.be/0qhm_MubHww.

When hydrogen is exposed to the material, it splits into a proton and an electron, and the electron attaches to the nickel, temporarily causing the material to become an insulator.

“Then, when the hydrogen comes out, this material becomes conducting again,” Ramanathan said. “What we show in this paper is the extent of conduction and insulation can be very carefully tuned.”

This changing conductance and the “decay of that conductance over time” is similar to a key animal behavior called habituation.

“Many animals, even organisms that don’t have a brain, possess this fundamental survival skill,” Roy said. “And that’s why we call this organismic behavior. If I see certain information on a regular basis, I get habituated, retaining memory of it. But if I haven’t seen such information over a long time then it slowly starts decaying. So the behavior of conductance going up and down in exponential fashion can be used to create a new computing model that will incrementally learn and at same time forget things in a proper way.”

The researchers have developed a “neural learning model” they have termed adaptive synaptic plasticity.

“This could be really important because it’s one of the first examples of using quantum materials directly for solving a major problem in neural learning,” Ramanathan said.

The researchers used the organismoids to implement the new model for synaptic plasticity.

“Using this effect we are able to model something that is a real problem in neuromorphic computing,” Roy said. “For example, if I have learned your facial features I can still go out and learn someone else’s features without really forgetting yours. However, this is difficult for computing models to do. When learning your features, they can forget the features of the original person, a problem called catastrophic forgetting.”

Neuromorphic computing is not intended to replace conventional general-purpose computer hardware, based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors, or CMOS. Instead, it is expected to work in conjunction with CMOS-based computing. Whereas CMOS technology is especially adept at performing complex mathematical computations, neuromorphic computing might be able to perform roles such as facial recognition, reasoning and human-like decision making.

Roy’s team performed the research work on the plasticity model, and other collaborators concentrated on the physics of how to explain the process of doping-driven change in conductance central to the paper. The multidisciplinary team includes experts in materials, electrical engineering, physics, and algorithms.

“It’s not often that a materials-science person can talk to a circuits person like professor Roy and come up with something meaningful,” Ramanathan said.

Organismoids might have applications in the emerging field of spintronics. Conventional computers use the presence and absence of an electric charge to represent ones and zeroes in a binary code needed to carry out computations. Spintronics, however, uses the “spin state” of electrons to represent ones and zeros.

It could bring circuits that resemble biological neurons and synapses in a compact design not possible with CMOS circuits. Whereas it would take many CMOS devices to mimic a neuron or synapse, it might take only a single spintronic device.

In future work, the researchers may demonstrate how to achieve habituation in an integrated circuit instead of exposing the material to hydrogen gas.

New Memory Technology May Be More Energy Efficient Than Previously Thought

Scientists often discover interesting things without completely understanding how they work. That has been the case with an experimental memory technology in which temperature and voltage work together to create the conditions for data storage. But precisely how was unknown.

But when a Stanford team found a way to untangle the chip’s energy and heat requirements, their tentative findings revealed a pleasant surprise: The process may be more energy efficient than was previously supposed. That’s good news for next-generation mobile devices whose batteries would last longer if they were powering lower energy chips.

The group that made this discovery, led by Stanford electrical engineer H.-S. Philip Wong, is presenting the paper when the IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) brings leading researchers to San Francisco Dec. 5.

The new technology the team investigated is called resistive random-access memory, or RRAM for short. RRAM is based on a new type of semiconductor material that forms digital zeros and ones by resisting or permitting the flow of electrons. RRAM has the potential to do things that aren’t possible with silicon: for instance, being layered on top of computer transistors in new three-dimensional, high-rise chips that would be faster and more energy efficient than current electronics, which is ideal for smartphones and other mobile devices where energy efficiency is a vital feature.

But while engineers can observe that RRAM does store data, they don’t know exactly how these new materials work. “We need much more precise information about the fundamental behavior of RRAM before we can hope to produce reliable devices,” Wong said.

Jolting memory

So to help engineers understand some of the unknowns, Wong’s team built a tool to measure the basic forces that make RRAM chips work.

Graduate student Zizhen Jiang of the Stanford team explained the basics: RRAM materials are insulators, which normally do not allow electricity to flow, she said. But under certain circumstances, insulators can be induced to let electrons flow. Past research had shown how: Jolting RRAM materials with an electric field causes a pathway to form that permitted electron flows. This pathway is called a filament. To break the filament, researchers apply another jolt and the material becomes an insulator again. So each jolt switched the RRAM from zero to one or back, which is what makes the material useful for data storage.

But electricity is not the only force at play in RRAM switching. Pumping electrons into any material raises its temperature. That’s the principle behind electric stoves. In the case of RRAM, it was the elevated temperature caused by introducing voltage that induced filaments to form or break. The question was what voltage-induced temperature was needed to cause the switching. No one knew.

Before the new Stanford study researchers thought short bursts of voltage, sufficient to generate temperatures of about 1,160 degrees Fahrenheit – hot enough to melt aluminum – was the switching point. But those were estimates because there was no way to measure the heat generated by an electric jolt.

“In order to begin to answer our questions, we had to decouple the effects of voltage and temperature on filament formation,” said Ziwen Wang, another graduate student on the team.

Dissecting the heat needs

Essentially, the Stanford researchers had to heat the RRAM material without using an electric field. So they put an RRAM chip on a micro thermal stage (MTS) device – a sophisticated hot plate capable of generating a wide range of temperatures inside the material. Of course the objective was not merely to heat the material, but also to measure how filaments formed. Here they took advantage of the fact that RRAM materials are insulators in their natural state. That makes them digital zeros. As soon as a filament formed electrons would flow. The digital zero would become a digital one, which the researchers could detect.

Using this experimental model, the team put RRAM chips on the burner and cranked up the heat, starting at about 80 F – roughly the temperature of a warm room – all the way up to 1,520 F, hot enough to melt a silver coin. Heating the RRAM to various temperatures in between these extremes, the researchers measured precisely if and how RRAM switched from its native zero to a digital one.

To their pleasant surprise, the researchers observed that filaments could form more efficiently at ambient temperatures between 80 F and 260 F, which is hotter than boiling water – contrary to prior expectation that hotter was better.

If confirmed by subsequent research, this would be good news because in a working chip the switching temperature would be created by the voltage and duration of the electric jolt. Efficient switching at lower temperatures would require less electricity and make RRAM more energy efficient and extend battery life when used as the memory in mobile devices.

Much work remains to be done to make RRAM memory practical but this research provides the test bed to vary conditions systematically instead of relying on hit-and-miss hunches.

“Now we can use voltage and temperature as design inputs in a predictive manner and that is going to enable us to design a better memory device,” Wang said.

Henry Chen, a Stanford alumnus who earned his PhD in Wang’s lab, gave this research a big assist and was a co-author on the paper. Chen, now with the Chinese memory chip-manufacturing firm GigaDevices Semiconductor Inc., helped develop the concepts and instruments that enabled the researchers to make the measurements being reported at IEDM.

Antarctica is home to considerably more volcanoes than previously thought

Photo by NASA
Antarctica’s ice sheet hides a massive system of volcanoes, one that is comparable to volcanic regions in East Africa and western North America, according to a new study, which found 91 previously undiscovered volcanoes, some over 12,600 feet tall.

Volcanoes aren’t completely unknown in Antarctica: some poke up through the existing ice sheet, while other studies have examined exposed outcrops. However, ice blankets the surface of the continent, making it impossible to directly study the underlying geology. A team of researchers from the University of Edinburgh’s School of GeoSciences examined a digital elevation model called Bedmap 2 DEM. That survey created a surface elevation model using radar imaging, which the team examined, looking for volcanic structures.

The team created a series of criteria for identifying probable volcano cones: a mound that has a certain length vs. width ratio and which has an elevations of more than 328 feet (100 meters), which were then examined from multiple angles to discern its shape. From that data, the team put together a five-point criteria to gauge how confident they were that each structure was a volcano.

The study resulted in the discovery of 178 cone-shaped structures in a region that researchers named the West Antarctic Rift System. Of those structures, researchers found that 138 are likely volcanoes, based on their confidence criteria. The identified volcanoes range from 328 feet (100 meters) to just over 12600 feet (3850 meters) in height, with cones that range from about two miles to just under 40 miles in dimeter. Of those volcanoes, 91 had not been previously been identified, and the study’s authors explain that the density of the volcanoes in the WARS is approximately one volcano per 4800 square miles. This puts the region in the company of other massive volcanic regions around the world, such as the East African Rift, which has around one volcano per 4500 square miles.

The results could have major implications for our understanding of the region and the massive ice sheet that covers it. The study’s authors explain that they aren’t able to determine if any of the newly-discovered volcanoes are active, but note that their survey should be able to help fuel future studies to help determine that. They also don’t believe that volcanic activity has played a role in the present retreat of the ice sheet.

However, they do believe that the presence of volcanoes in the area will play a role in how quickly the sheet retreats in the future. They cite studies of glaciers in Iceland, which were helped along by the heat by underlying volcanic activity. There’s other implications as well: the team says that there’s evidence that the removal of a kilometers-thick ice sheet can lead to an increase in volcanism, something that’s also been seen in Iceland.

On the other hand, the presence of the volcano cones themselves could also help slow glacial movement: ice flows downward as long as it’s easy for it to do so, but rough underlying terrain can help impede this movement. The team explains that they found a number of cones in the area that “could represent some of the most influential pinning points for past and future ice retreat.”

Ultimately, the surface of Antarctica hidden by its massive ice sheet is home to one of the largest volcanic regions on Earth, the existence of which could have a profound impact on the future of the region, which is already quickly changing.